The report estimated between 7, and 14, tonnes of CFCs are smuggled annually into developing countries. In searching for a new refrigerant, requirements for the compound were: History[ edit ] Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 was used in fire extinguishers and glass "anti-fire grenades" from the late nineteenth century until around the end of World War II.
By the late s they were standard in many applications where water and dry-powder extinguishers posed a threat of damage to the protected property, including computer rooms, telecommunications switches, laboratories, museums and art collections.
Ozone-depleting gas trends Because the only CFCs available to countries adhering to the Replacements to cfcs essay is from recycling, their prices have increased considerably.
Many nations, such as the United States and Chinawho had previously resisted such effortsagreed with the accelerated phase out schedule. Hydrofluorocarbons are included in the Kyoto Protocol because of their very high Global Warming Potential and are facing calls to be regulated under the Montreal Protocol [ dubious — discuss ]  due to the recognition of halocarbon contributions to climate change.
One of the Replacements to cfcs essay refrigerants along with ammonia and carbon dioxidehydrocarbons have negligible environmental impacts and are also used worldwide in domestic and commercial refrigeration applications, and are becoming available in new split system air conditioners.
By the yearCFCs should have been completely eliminated from developing countries as well. The cost of replacing the equipment of these items is sometimes cheaper than outfitting them with a more ozone-friendly appliance.
The experiment did however provide the first useful data on the presence of CFCs in the atmosphere. In public attention was drawn to the issue, that at an unknown place in east Asia an estimated amount of Freon is a trade name for a group of CFCs which are used primarily as refrigerantsbut also have uses in fire-fighting and as propellants in aerosol cans.
These programs recycle halon through "halon banks" coordinated by the Halon Recycling Corporation  to ensure that discharge to the atmosphere occurs only in a genuine emergency and to conserve remaining stocks.
In a demonstration for the American Chemical SocietyMidgley flamboyantly demonstrated all these properties by inhaling a breath of the gas and using it to blow out a candle  in Dichloromethane is a versatile industrial solvent.
Bromomethane is widely used as a fumigant. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer did not cover bromofluoroalkanes as it was thought, at the time, that emergency discharge of extinguishing systems was too small in volume to produce a significant impact, and too important to human safety for restriction.
Inthere were an estimated 5, kilotons of CFCs in existing products such as refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol cans and others. Indiplomats met in London and voted to significantly strengthen the Montreal Protocol by calling for a complete elimination of CFCs by the year Much early research with Halon was conducted under the auspices of the US Armed Forces, while Halon was, initially, mainly developed in the UK.
February Learn how and when to remove this template message Since the late s, the use of CFCs has been heavily regulated because of their destructive effects on the ozone layer.
In conjunction with other industrial peers DuPont formed a lobbying group, the "Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy," to combat regulations of ozone-depleting compounds.
These included Suva refrigerants and Dymel propellants. In the s, fluoroalkanes and bromofluoroalkanes became available and were quickly recognized as being highly effective fire-fighting materials.
Developing nations were given until In a self-funded research expedition ending inLovelock went on to measure CFC in both the Arctic and Antarctic, finding the presence of the gas in each of 50 air samples collected, and concluding that CFCs are not hazardous to the environment.
Production of new stocks ceased in most probably all countries in Byin response to a dramatic seasonal depletion of the ozone layer over Antarcticadiplomats in Montreal forged a treaty, the Montreal Protocolwhich called for drastic reductions in the production of CFCs.
Bromofluoroalkanes have been largely phased out and the possession of equipment for their use is prohibited in some countries like the Netherlands and Belgium, from 1 Januarybased on the Montreal Protocol and guidelines of the European Union.
This section does not cite any sources. However, concern was beginning to be expressed about the impact of chloroalkanes and bromoalkanes on the ozone layer.Evidence has shown that even small amounts of CFCs can damage large amounts of ozone.
Firstly, CFCs generally have a long lifespan, ranging from approximately 57 (CFC) years to years (CFC), and due to the fact that each Chlorine radical can be responsible for the breakdown of tens of thousands of ozone molecules, and due to their lifespan once released, even a small amount, will be.
Risk Assessment for Chlorofluorocarbons essays The use of chlorofluorocarbons has always been a controversial issue. Like many elements and compounds, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have benefits and drawbacks, and for this reason is why their use has been a topic of discussion.
CFCs have various positi. PDF | Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, were developed in the late s for use as safe refrigerant alternatives to sulphur dioxide and ammonia. They were welcomed by industry because of their low toxicity, chemical stability, low flammability, low cost and ease of synthesis.
Essay on Total Hip Replacements - Total Hip Replacement (THR) is a surgical procedure that relieves pain from most kinds of hip arthritis, thus helping to improve the quality of life for the majority of the patients that undergo the operation. The most consumer-related of these products is the replacement for CFC, which is used in automobile air conditioning.
Car manufacturers such as GM, Ford, and Chrysler all have at least one model as of that used SUVAa instead of the CFC equivalent. The use of CFCs and HCFCs as refrigerants, attack, deplete the ozone layer and aids global warming.
The use of hydrocarbon- propane as a refrigerant with zero; ozone depletion potential (ODP), global.Download