Thus early neglectful and physically abusive practices have devastating consequences for their small victims. A particularly serious biological consequence of child and adolescent sexual abuse is the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
The majority of children who are abused do not show signs of extreme disturbance. Some studies indicate that physically abused children show higher levels of aggression than other maltreated children Hoffman-Plotkin and Twentyman, ; Kaufman and Cicchetti, although other studies indicate that neglected children may be more dysfunctional Rohrbeck and Twentyman, Higher incidence of suicide attempts and self-mutilation have been Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Physical consequences range from minor injuries to severe brain damage and even death.
Maltreated children may also be less competent in their social interactions with peers Straus and Gelles, ; Howes and Espinosa, While sexualization seems relatively specific to sexual abuse, inappropriate sexual behavior has been noted in nonsexually abused children.
For some physically abused children, this may manifest in withdrawal or avoidance Kaufman and Cicchetti,or fear, anger, and aggression Main and George, Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect.
The cognitive effects of abuse range from attentional problems and learning disorders to severe organic brain syndromes. In several studies, school-age victims of physical abuse showed lower self-esteem on self-report Allen and Tarnowski, ; Kinard, ; Oates et al.
Research on the consequences of child maltreatment is also uneven and, as a result, we do not yet understand the consequences on children of particular types or multiple forms of abuse. In a recent review of studies reporting quantitative findings about the impact of sexual abuse of minors, Kendall-Tackett et al.
In the absence of growth indicators of nonorganic failure to thrive or deprivational dwarfism, clinical diagnosis of child neglect is quite difficult.
Physically abused children have been found to have more mild neurologic signs, serious physical injuries, and skin markings and scars than their nonabused peers Kolko et al. However, others have not found differences in intellectual and cognitive functioning, language skills, or verbal ability Alessandri, ; Allen and Oliver, ; Elmer, ; Lynch and Roberts, In recent years, much attention has been focused on the consequences of child sexual abuse, especially the adolescent and adult sexual behavior of the victim.
The scientific study of child maltreatment and its consequences is in its Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Related evidence examining the role of interparental conflict suggests witnessing verbal hostility and physical violence between parents is associated with significantly higher levels of child internalizing and externalizing behavior on parent rating scales, and lower levels of child competence based on direct interviews Fantuzzo et al.
Behaviorally, the consequences of abuse range from poor peer relations all the way to extraordinarily violent behaviors. Psychological consequences range from chronic low self-esteem to severe dissociative states.
However, early sexual abuse may occur and not be documented until much later in life Stein and Lewis, Childhood Medical and Physiological Consequences Physical abuse in infants and young children can lead to brain dysfunction Dykes, and sometimes death.
Studies have generally not examined whether the results are due to exposure to parental violence, the effects of confounding variables such as child rejection, limited caretaking skills, and parental in- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Distinguishing consequences that are associated directly with the experience of child maltreatment itself rather than other social disorders is a daunting task for the research investigator.
Studies of sexual promiscuity and teenage pregnancy have primarily included females who were sexually abused. For over 30 years, clinicians have described the effects of child abuse and neglect on the physical, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral development of children.
However, the number of child deaths caused by abuse and neglect may actually be much higher, since cause of death is often misclassified in child fatality reports McClain et al.
The lowest estimates of 7 percent were based on a large study that included many well-functioning and older children. In the preschool classroom, these children presented varied and serious behavior problems.
Eventually, the parent may begin to perceive the child as quiet, sickly, or not very competent, perceptions that may not be shared by others who observe the child Ayoub and Miler, ; Kotelchuck, Reported rates vary widely because of differences in samples, measurement instruments, and definitions of the outcome behavior.
Greater emotional difficulties in older physically abused children have also been identified Kinard, The experience of severe physical harm is associated with the "acquisition of a set of biased and deficient patterns of processing social provocation information" p.Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect Every child who has experienced abuse or neglect will have their own response to the trauma.
While some children have long-lasting effects, others are able to recover quicker and with ease. Neglect Signs, indicators and effects. More on this topic. Neglect; Signs, indicators and effects; Who is affected by neglect The impact of neglect. Child abuse and neglect Back. Neglect Child sexual abuse Domestic abuse.
Learn how child abuse and neglect affect children, adolescents, adult survivors, and society. This section examines the impact of abuse and neglect on child development, as well as long-term consequences for adults with a history of abuse.
Read chapter 6 CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT: The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention.
Yet, without a c. A consistent definition is needed to monitor the incidence of child abuse and neglect to examine trends over time and to determine the impact of prevention strategies. In addition, a clear and consistent definition helps determine the magnitude of child abuse and neglect and allows comparison of the problem across jurisdictions.
Child abuse and neglect affect children’s health now and later, and costs to our country are significant. Child abuse and neglect can lead to poor physical and mental health well into adulthood.
The physical, psychological, behavioral and economic consequences of child maltreatment are explained below.Download